Have you ever wondered why drugs are illegal? We’re born into a society that has pre-determined rules, laws, norms, customs and stigmas, many of which we might not believe in ourselves, yet we go along with it. First, because we don’t want to be thrown in jail for breaking the law. Second, out of respect to our fellow man and hoping that others respect our rights just as we respect theirs.

However, prohibition of substances, on its face, doesn’t seem to make sense if you believe in a free society where adult human beings are capable of making responsible decisions for themselves. Why does it matter what another person puts into their body as long as they are not infringing upon the rights of those around them?

Many people around the world today believe that all drugs should be decriminalized, including members of law enforcement and Harvard economist, Jeffrey Miron.

In fact, there is an entire group of law enforcement personnel (called LEAP) that have set up a website to advocate for the decriminalization of all drugs. Their argument is basically this: it is not the use of the drug itself that causes so much personal and social harm to the folks using the substances, but rather it is the prohibition of the substances that is causing the real damage.

By prohibiting drugs and making them illegal, you create a black market for the product that is unregulated and completely monopolized by organized crime syndicates. Because they have a monopoly on the market, they can charge incredibly high prices for the drugs and have to fight to keep their control of the market. This leads to the bribing of other criminal organizations and the fighting and killing of not only other gang members, but law enforcement personnel and children as well.

If history has taught us anything about prohibition, it is that it does nothing to curb the actual use or abuse of the substance itself. When drug dealers are arrested and imprisoned, supply and demand does not really change. Instead, a spot opens up for the next drug dealer with an entrepreneurial spirit seeking to cash in on the huge potential profits.

As Jeffrey Miron explains, attempts to enforce this violent and corrupt underground drug market ultimately lead to the reduction of basic civil rights--specifically the fourth amendment to the constitution. It prohibits sick people from using substances that may help treat their chronic conditions and ailments, and breeds strong relationships between crime syndicates and terrorist organizations, both of which have something to gain from the selling of illegal drugs.

Miron believes that by legalizing all substances, we create a market for them that operates much like the markets that sell substances like caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol. And as is the case with drugs that are legal, we would see a small portion of the population use them recreationally with minor negative effects and an even smaller portion of the population that misuses and abuses them to their own detriment, but not to the detriment of others, relatively speaking.

While this is not a solution that completely eliminates all negative consequences of drug use, it is one that creates a balance that is much better for society than simply prohibiting drug use altogether.

While many people who argue against the legalization of drugs think that consumption of drugs would significantly increase, evidence suggests that this most likely will not happen. Portugal legalized the consumption of all drugs over a decade ago and they experienced almost no change at all in consumption rates--if anything, they saw mild decreases in drug use.

Policies surrounding a fully legalized drug market would most likely operate similar to the ones we have now for alcohol, tobacco and marijuana, with certain age requirements and limiting consumption to certain times and places.

Do you think all drugs should be legalized in the United States? The evidence and supporting details for such an argument seems to make quite a bit of sense.

Let us know how you feel about the prospects of legalizing all drugs and be sure to share with friends and family members who you think would be interested in reading more about this topic!

Read More

RELATED POSTS

12-Year-Old Boy Dies From Scrape in Gym Class, But Thousands of Others Are Saved Because of It

Rory’s parents, Orlaith and Ciaran, an Irish couple from Co Louth, decided to establish the Rory Staunton Foundation shortly after he’d passed, hoping to raise awareness about the cause of their son’s death: sepsis.

Sepsis can be caused by any type of infection, be it viral, fungal, or in Rory’s case, bacterial. Young people are particularly susceptible to this infection, and what makes it so deadly is the fact that it inhibits blood flow to the body’s vital organs and raises the risk for blood clots.

With the creation of the Rory Staunton Foundation, Rory’s parents also hoped to help introduce a higher standard of protocol when it comes to the identification and treatment of sepsis, so that others may stand a better chance at avoiding the same fate as their son.

Just a year later on January 29, 2013, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo declared that all New York State hospitals would adopt evidence-based protocols, known as Rory’s Regulations, to help diagnose and treat sepsis infections as fast as possible.

And it seems to be working, according to a New York State report focused on how the introduction of the ‘Sepsis Care Improvement Initiative’ has boosted the performances of New York State hospitals. Sepsis infections are being identified and treated much faster, leading to fewer deaths.

"We have met the people that have been saved by these protocols," said Rory’s father, Ciaran.

"We are happy that their parents are not joining us in this miserable life. We want that fighting chance extended to every family in America".

But, while Ciaran Staunton is happy that regulations and awareness have both been dramatically increased in the state of New York, he says that his ultimate goal is to have similar regulations implemented in every state in the U.S. by the year 2020.

"When our son died, there was no awareness, no sepsis protocols, nothing in the A-Z book on sepsis," he said.

"Now we've shown here's what we can do in New York - we want the US Government to have the same level of anxiety and awareness of sepsis as they do Ebola."

According to the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), over a million people in the United States suffer from sepsis each year, with anywhere from 28 percent to 50 percent of those people dying as a result.

Rory’s father says that they’re not looking for a miracle, they’re looking to inform people, as he believes that less than half of all Americans have even heard of sepsis before.

"We're not looking for a cure for sepsis, we're looking for awareness," he said.

"Our foundation looks to change that and to reflect how everyone affected in America is being treated".

h/t Independent

Read More

How Hiking Changes the Brain, Based On Science

Those of us who love being outside in nature probably aren’t too surprised that hiking can have benefits for the brain, but now researchers are saying that they’ve found actual positive changes made by the brain after going on hikes.

Reducing negative thought patterns

How many of us have a bad habit of being incredibly hard on ourselves or always thinking negatively? It can be hard to control that inner dialogue that is constantly churning, constantly saying negative things. A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences discovered that being outside in nature helps reduce the amount of negative, obsessive thoughts that an individual has throughout the day.

The study focused on the rumination levels of people who spent time hiking in the great outdoors versus people hiking through urban environments. Subjects who spent 90 minutes walking in a natural environment said they had less feelings of rumination and showed reduced subgenual prefrontal cortex activity, which is the part of the brain closely tied to mental illness. Subjects who spent their time in the urban environment did not report decreases in rumination.

Creative problem solving and exercise

Exercise is often touted as one of the most, if not the most, important things for humans to do regularly. Why? Because it helps improve your health in almost every way. And hiking is a great way to get outside and pursue active goals while also helping to boost one’s mental health.

Research out of the University of British Columbia has discovered that exercise helps reduce and prevent memory loss in older folks and has similar benefits for people of all ages. Particularly, exercise is great for boosting one’s self esteem while reducing stress and anxiety.

Another great benefit was discovered by psychologists Ruth Ann Atchley and David Strayer, who found a strong link between one’s capacity for creative problem solving and ditching technology while being out in nature. Subjects in their study were asked to backpack through a natural environment for at least 4 days without using any sort of technological device. Along their trip, they were tasked with problems that forced them to problem solve in creative and complex ways.

What they found? Creative problem solving performance rates went up by about 50 percent for everyone who participated in the free-hike adventure. This lead the researchers to note that technology and the ambiance of urban environments often keep an individual from focusing, which eventually leads to mental fatigue. Long hikes in nature without these disturbances help calm the mind, reduce fatigue and ultimately increase one’s ability to think and creatively problem solve.

So, are you ready to start hiking yet? Put your boots on, grab your pack and get on the trail! You won't regret it.

h/t Collective Evolution

Read More

This Is What Happens When You Stop Using So Many Cosmetic Products

Photo Credit: tomwang / 123RF Stock Photo

Researchers at UC Berkeley and Clinica de Salud del Valle Salinas recently conducted a study that illustrated the dramatic changes that happen to one’s body after even just a short break is taken from using cosmetic products such as shampoo, sunscreen, soap and other personal hygiene amenities.

Published in Environmental Health Perspectives journal, the study had 100 teenage Latina girls try out personal care and cosmetic products that did not contain chemicals commonly found in traditional and conventional personal care products, such as phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and oxybenzone. Studies involving animals have shown that these chemicals can actually directly affect the body’s endocrine system, which is why they are being targeted for study regarding human use now.

“Because women are the primary consumers of many personal care products, they may be disproportionately exposed to these chemicals,” said associate director of the UC Berkeley Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health and study lead author, Kim Harley.

“Teen girls may be at particular risk since it’s a time of rapid reproductive development, and research has suggested that they use more personal care products per day than the average adult woman.”

What the study discovered

After just three days of the Latina girls using products without the chemicals mentioned above, their bodies had significant reactions. Urine samples revealed decreases in all levels of these chemicals in the body. Methyl and propyl parabens fell by 45 percent, metabolites of diethyl phthalate fell by 27 percent, and triclosan and benzophenone-3 both had 36 percent decreases.

“The results of the study are particularly interesting on a scientific level, but the fact that high school students led the study set a new path to engaging youth to learn about science and how it can be used to improve the health of their communities. After learning of the results, the youth took it upon themselves to educate friends and community members, and presented their cause to legislatures in Sacramento,” says Kimberly Parra, co-director of the study.

Maritza Cardenas, one of the high school students who helped design and develop the study (and who is now an undergraduate at UC Berkely), says that raising awareness about these chemicals and their effects was part of the motivation behind the study:

“One of the goals of our study was to create awareness among the participants of the chemicals found in everyday products, to help make people more conscious about what they’re using. Seeing the drop in chemical levels after just three days shows that simple actions can be taken, such as choosing products with fewer chemicals, and make a difference.”

If you want to avoid buying these products, the best thing you can practice is checking the ingredient list. Unfortunately, many cosmetic products do not contain their ingredient list on them, so if you have any brands in particular that you like to use, it may behoove you to contact their manufacturer directly.

While “organic” and “natural” are typically good indicators, these words are also often used by marketers to sell products, meaning they might not actually be as natural or organic as you’d hoped. Buying products from health food stores is your safest bet, but again, it is wise to ask someone about what you are purchasing.

Ideally, many of the products with high amounts of chemicals will eventually be phased out as more and more people make the switch!

h/t Collective Evolution

Read More

Common Relationship Problems Based on Your Zodiac Sign

Aries (March 21 - April 19)

Aries, you’re a fiery sign that is intent on getting your way. That means you have a hard time accepting defeat and will flat out deny anything that isn’t going according to your plan. Sometimes your partners will struggle to keep up with all of your wants and needs, and leaving toxic relationships is difficult because of your willpower and determination to save them.

Taurus (April 20 - May 20)

Taurus, you tend to be very dramatic when a partner has wronged you, but you always choose to settle the matter instead of simply calling it quits. You will sometimes struggle to communicate effectively with your partners and can be judgmental of their actions and words. You also like what you like and rarely ever see the point of compromising.

Gemini (May 21 - June 20)

Gemini can struggle in relationships because of their unrealistic expectations and tendency to become a little self-absorbed. You sometimes forget about your partner’s needs and desires while simultaneously fantasizing about passionate, everlasting love. Bickering over small things is normal and you can get territorial when you share living spaces.

Cancer (June 21 - July 22)

Cancers like to strut the boundary between not feeling loved enough and feeling too loved. You have irrational fears about your partners leaving you and want their affection often, but you also get uneasy when you’re shown too much affection. In a similar style, you regularly think about starting a family and settling down, but fear that you’re missing out by not staying single.

Leo (July 23 - August 22)

Leos can be hard to be with romantically because they hold a lot of their emotion inside, hidden from the rest of the world. They want things to look like they are fantastic. Financial security and a happy home life are sought after, but Leos tend to expect more from their partners than they receive. They also have a common internal struggle of never knowing whether or not someone is enough for them.

Virgo (August 23 - September 22)

Virgo have an unhealthy tendency to take on more than they can handle. They regularly get upset and hurt over the heavy burdens they take on and are prone to angry outbursts that they usually end up apologizing for. Virgos are also usually the people who want to constantly be with their partner, even though this can be a toxic habit.

Libra (September 23 - October 22)

Libras have the good and bad habit of looking through rose-colored lenses: they always choose to see the good. This sometimes has them blinded to the toxicity of the people they choose to be with. But, this makes sense, because Libras would rather lie than speak the painful words of truth. You also want to save broken people, but also expect a lot in return.

Scorpio (October 23 - November 21)

Betrayal is at the top of the list when it comes to the best ways to hurt a Scorpio. They tend to excommunicate anyone who knowingly hurts them. Scorpios tend to be the most passionate in a relationship when it first starts, but can lose interest as time passes if things aren’t going well. They like to hold grudges and rarely ever see negative comments as anything other than personal attacks.

Sagittarius (November 22 - December 21)

As the free spirited among the zodiac, Sagittarius struggle in relationships with maintaining that freedom. Wanting to travel and be in open relationships are common problems the Sagittarius will encounter. You’re not keen on reconciling differences and your relationships sometimes become exhausted due to feelings of being burnt out.

Capricorn (December 22 - January 20)

Capricorns will often sacrifice many of their own needs and desires to satisfy their partners. Along this same thought, they also tend to become comfortable in doing so. They don’t like to argue or fight, so they tend to just let problems go unsolved or assume their partner will deal with it alone. And they always have an excuse for every part of the toxic relationships they sometimes find themselves in.

Aquarius (January 21 - February 18)

Aquarius like relationships that never become stale. They need a partner who is always on their page because they’re great at communicating and absolutely hate when people can’t understand them. Staying in a stagnant relationship is not something they will do, especially because they already have a big fear of being with someone for too long and missing out on everything life has to offer.

Pisces (February 19 - March 20)

Pisces can be hard to be with because of how much they struggle to understand and express their own emotions. And when things are stressful or not going well, they tend to become quiet and reserved, potentially leading to even more confusion. If your feelings aren’t reciprocated by your partner, you feel as though the relationship is one-sided with you caring more, which can be breed feelings of resentment.

h/t Thought Catalog

Read More

Please Wait...Loading